In the 11 February 2011 issue, Science joins with colleagues from Science Signaling, Science Translational Medicine, and Science Careers to provide a broad look at the issues surrounding the increasingly huge influx of research data. This collection of articles highlights both the challenges posed by the data deluge and the opportunities that can be realized if we can better organize and access the data. The following two articles specifically address the topic of open data: Climate Data Challenges in the 21st Century (Overpeck et al.); Challenges and Opportunities of Open Data in Ecology (Reichman et al.).